Archive for April, 2010

E-Commerce- Assignment1

1. Do you need customers to have the ability to subscribe/sign up for a new letter, coupon etc?
Yes, we need the customers who have the ability to subscribe/sign up for a new letter, coupon etc. Most shopping cards that companies use are bulky and have more features than needed. Sometimes this means a shopping cart looks less like a basic transaction facilitator, and more like a boot camp obstacle training course with high walls and flaming hoops.
None of these features are bad per se, and some might even be helpful in the overall customer-client relationship. The only problem is when they get in the way of the natural thought sequence of a customer looking to purchase something at a specific moment in time. If I come to a web site, place an order in my cart, and hit “check out,” then please just let me check out. We must make sure our cart processes is sticking to the main objective – namely, closing the sale. All these customer retention features and cross-promotional options can be strategically accomplished after the initial sale has already been completed.

2. What needs of UNIFACT to produce an E-commerce?
It is easy and cost effective to establish a centralized, Internet accessible national database infrastructure for the collection, cleansing and dissemination of information and data critical to trading in a country. When doing so, points to consider include:

 There is a difference between text and data that impacts how easily information can be accessed and utilized.
Normalize the Harmonized Tariff Schedule and consider cross referencing to other countries extended HS numbers.

Uses both format standards and data content standards. Format standards are usually set by a governing agency, i.e., United Nations and the UNIFACT standard. Data content standards are increasingly being set by private industry.

It can establish a transparent payment process for Customs duties and fees. Delays in clearing goods through Customs are the most negative impediment to trade. Bounds that guarantee payment. Exploring new alternatives, such as Authority to Pay options, that can guarantee payment of duties and taxes. This would allow goods to flow easily across borders and into the commerce of your country.
Explore providing centralized access to hardware and software that can provide simplified and inexpensive technology to associations and smaller companies seeking to trade globally.

3. How do I know if my idea for a business is a good one?
An analysis is a quick way of examining a business’s viability by analyzing its internal strengths and weaknesses and matching these to its external opportunities and threats. Collecting these facts and ideas together into one place enables you to see the bigger picture at a glance. Basically, we take a sheet of paper and draw a vertical line intersected in the middle by a horizontal line, creating four quadrants.It is probably even too soon to put together a comprehensive business plan. What you need is a simple, clear, snapshot insight into what you can deliver and whether the marketplace will be receptive to your offering.

1. What should I present to web design firm looking to invest in my idea?
For web design idea we have to arrange various type of aspect regarding to company
A:-What is the level of company?
B:-What is the class of the company?
C:-What is the requirement of the company?
D:-What features customer required to access?
E:-What is the level of ease we have to give to the customer?
F:-What is the behavior of user?
E:-Number of user hit per day?
F:-Demand of the user?

2. What’s the Internet/Intranet?
An intranet is a private computer network that uses Internet protocols, network connectivity to securely share part of an organization’s information or operations with its employees. Sometimes the term refers only to the most visible service, the internal website. The same concepts and technologies of the Internet such as clients and servers running on the Internet protocol suite are used to build an intranet. HTTP and other Internet protocols are commonly used as well, such as FTP. There is often an attempt to use Internet technologies to provide new interfaces with corporate legacy data and information systems.
Briefly, an intranet can be understood as a private version of the Internet, or as a version of the Internet confined to an organization.
The Internet is a worldwide, publicly accessible series of interconnected computer networks that transmit data by packet switching using the standard Internet Protocol (IP). It is a network of networks that consists of millions of smaller domestic, academic, business, and government networks, which together carry various information and services, such as electronic mail, online chat, file transfer, and the interlinked Web pages and other documents of the World Wide Web.

There’s one major difference between an intranet and the Internet:
The Internet is an open, public space, while an intranet is designed to be a private space. An intranet may be accessible from the Internet, but as a rule it’s protected by a password and accessible only to employees or other authorized users.
From within a company, an intranet server may respond much more quickly than a typical Web site. This is because the public Internet is at the mercy of traffic spikes, server breakdowns and other problems that may slow the network. Within a company, however, users have much more bandwidth and network hardware may be more reliable. This makes it easier to serve high-bandwidth content, such as audio and video, over an intranet.

3. Do you need permission from e business before posting a recommendation for their services?
Generally, if we want to run it as legal issues I recommend having a permission of the consult department people. I think we would probably need to check with Internment to answer the ‘legal’ issue, but the better question would be – how are you going to guarantee that when I receive my cookies, they are not all crumbled up… seems like we could have a real ‘customer satisfaction’ issue not to mention ‘staleness’ issue.

In certain situations planning permission is mandatory:
• Most proposed new buildings
• Extensions or additions to existing buildings, excluding dwelling houses
• Putting up outbuildings and structures
• Changes in the use of land or buildings
• Property where permitted development rights have been removed. For more information please see the permitted development rights page
Things we may need permission for
• Putting up fences and walls over certain heights
• Installing a satellite dish or micro-renewable in certain locations on your property
• Extensions or additions to existing dwelling houses over a certain size
• Building a porch over certain dimensions
• Running a business from your house
Things for which special permission may also be needed
• Work on a listed building
• Work within a conservation area
• Work on a protected tree or trees within a conservation area
• The display of advertisements
• Development restricted by an article 4 direction (you will probably know if your property is affected by this restriction)
Help with finding out if you need planning permission
• Connect to the Planning Portal interactive house and terrace. These interactive tools will provide you with useful advice on what may or may not require planning permission. A link can be found on the right hand side of the page. Please note that local circumstances may override some of these guidelines.
• Contact us using our enquiry form. There is a charge of £56.70 for this service. Please note that where householders wish to seek permitted development advice on proposals for renewable energy development they will be exempt from the £56.70 fee for such enquiries.
• Visit the government’s Planning Portal website. Please note that local circumstances may override these guidelines.
• Get advice from a planning consultant. To find a consultant select one of the related links or look in the Yellow Pages under planning consultants. If you cannot afford to pay a planning consultant or are a member of a community group you may be able to get help from South West Planning Aid.

You are welcome for any type of Suggestion.
Mob- 09041740452

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Q.1 How can you apply the concept of “Application prototype development
strategy” in the information systems. Discuss in detail.

A prototype model is built using the prototype geometry to physically represent the new product design. The aesthetics, number of parts, service, industry standards, manufacturing processes, materials and assembly are all represented as accurately as SLA and CNC processes permit. We can provide silicone rubber molds and multiple cast parts with threaded brass inserts when several prototypes are required. Painted steel, machined aluminum and stainless steel prototype parts are also available. Deliverables include a functional prototype model and prototype evaluation.

Q.2 Elaborate the “steps in prototype methods” by taking the example of
some Real life application.

Steps in prototype methods:

1. Gather requirements
2. Build prototype
3. Evaluate prototype
4. If accepted, throw away prototype and redesign.
5. If rejected, re gather requirements and repeat from step 2.

Q.3. What is the Use of prototypes in Computer aided system tools?

Prototyping tools can be used to develop graphic models of application screens to assist end users to visualize how an application will look after development. Subsequently, system designers can use automated design tools to transform the prototyped functional requirements into detailed design documents. Programmers can then use automated code generators to convert the design documents into code. Automated tools can be used collectively, as mentioned, or individually. For example, prototyping tools could be used to define application requirements that get passed to design technicians who convert the requirements into detailed designs in a traditional manner using flowcharts and narrative documents, without the assistance of automated design software.


Q.4. Discuss the Role of various Tools used in the analysis and design of
Information system.

Tools are a class of software that automates many of the activities involved in various life cycle phases. For example, when establishing the functional requirements of a proposed application, prototyping tools can be used to develop graphic models of application screens to assist end users to visualize how an application will look after development. Subsequently, system designers can use automated design tools to transform the prototyped functional requirements into detailed design documents. Programmers can then use automated code generators to convert the design documents into code. Automated tools can be used collectively, as mentioned, or individually. For example, prototyping tools could be used to define application requirements that get passed to design technicians who convert the requirements into detailed designs in a traditional manner using flowcharts and narrative documents, without the assistance of automated design software.

Q5. Define and explain the procedures for cost/benefits determination?

Cost–benefit analysis is typically used by governments to evaluate the desirability of a given intervention. It is heavily used in today’s government. It is an analysis of the cost effectiveness of different alternatives in order to see whether the benefits outweigh the costs. The aim is to gauge the efficiency of the intervention relative to the status quo. The costs and benefits of the impacts of an intervention are evaluated in terms of the public’s willingness to pay for them (benefits) or willingness to pay to avoid them (costs). Inputs are typically measured in terms of opportunity costs- the value in their best alternative use. The guiding principle is to list all parties affected by an intervention and place a monetary value of the effect it has on their welfare as it would be valued by them.
The process involves monetary value of initial and ongoing expenses vs. expected return. Constructing plausible measures of the costs and benefits of specific actions is often very difficult. In practice, analysts try to estimate costs and benefits either by using survey methods or by drawing inferences from market behavior. For example, a product manager may compare manufacturing and marketing expenses with projected sales for a proposed product and decide to produce it only if he expects the revenues to eventually recoup the costs. Cost–benefit analysis attempts to put all relevant costs and benefits on a common temporal footing. A discount rate is chosen, which is then used to compute all relevant future costs and benefits in present-value terms. Most commonly, the discount rate used for present-value calculations is an interest rate taken from financial markets. This can be very controversial; for example, a high discount rate implies a very low value on the welfare of future generations, which may have a huge impact on the desirability of interventions to help the environment. Empirical studies suggest that in reality, people’s discount rates do decline over time. Because cost–benefit analysis aims to measure the public’s true willingness to pay, this feature is typically built into studies.
During cost–benefit analysis, monetary values may also be assigned to less tangible effects such as the various risks that could contribute to partial or total project failure, such as loss of reputation, market, or long-term enterprise strategy alignments. This is especially true when governments use the technique, for instance to decide whether to introduce business regulation build a new road, or offer a new drug through the state healthcare system. In this case, a value must be put on human life or the environment, often causing great controversy. For example, the cost–benefit principle says that we should install a guardrail on a dangerous stretch of mountain road if the dollar cost of doing so is less than the implicit dollar value of the injuries, deaths, and property damage thus prevented.
Cost–benefit calculations typically involve using time value of money formulas. This is usually done by converting the future expected streams of costs and benefits with a present value amount.

Q6 .What is the system requirement/how are requirement determined?

Software Requirements deal with defining software resource requirements and pre-requisites that need to be installed on a computer to provide optimal functioning of an application. These requirements or pre-requisites are generally not included in the software installation package and need to be installed separately before the software is installed.
System requirements are often suggested by software vendor for optimal performance of software. Although not a necessity, this set of requirements is often sought after by power users who expect to gain a better experience of software usability. Recommended System Requirements do not promise best possible performance of software and are treated as more of a guideline than a rule. Almost always a better system is available, or will be in future, to provide better performance. Also, exceeding by far these requirements does not guarantee to the user that everything will run with absolute smoothness and look its best. More often than not, games are a bit disappointing in this respect, presenting issues that may or may not be corrected with future modifications.

Q7. What forms of decision table are used in information systems?

Decision table can be used if the combination of conditions is given. In decision table conditions are known as causes and serial numbers of conditions are known as business rule.
The limited-entry decision table is the simplest to describe. The condition alternatives are simple Boolean values, and the action entries are check-marks, representing which of the actions in a given column are to be performed.
A technical support company writes a decision table to diagnose printer problems based upon symptoms described to them over the phone from their clients.

Printer troubleshooter
Conditions Printer does not print Y Y Y Y N N N N
A red light is flashing Y Y N N Y Y N N
Printer is unrecognized Y N Y N Y N Y N
Actions Check the power cable X
Check the printer-computer cable X X
Ensure printer software is installed X X X X
Check/replace ink X X X X
Check for paper jam X X
Of course, this is just a simple example (and it does not necessarily correspond to the reality of printer troubleshooting), but even so, it demonstrates how decision tables can scale to several conditions with many possibilities.

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Q.1) Elucidate spike? What is the purpose of spike? Explain the method to add graphics to the spike?
Ans: Spike is the hidden feature of MS office we can say that because most of the users don’t know that. It work like we can copy the matter one by one and putting them in the basket in this way we can handle multiple copy problem. So spike is also interesting feature of the MS office.
Demo tool

How to move item in spike stake
For moving item in the spike you have to select the first the items that Hot CTRL+F3 or click on the spike button.
This step you can do multiple times and when you completed and want all the items back directly that hit the CTRL+SHIFT+F3.
Now if you want to view you stack item simply open the spike folder like
In MS office 2008 and 2010 you can do by going on the big upper MS office button and going on the MS office option and then in the tab select all item then go to the Spike and move spike in the Tab that’s it.

Q.2) Compare and contrast between word wrap and justification?
Word wrap is the wrapping of the text or images either vice versa while justification only justifies the text centre right or left.

What actually the word wrap means

Actually the wrapping means to apply the selected object with its relative object.
Like if we want to write a text on image that is not possible and if we want to add the image this is also not possible.

The following are the points which satisfy the wrapping.

In line with text
This option enabled the side by side placing of images and the text.

This type of wrapping enabled the image to make a square around itself and place the text.

In the tight wrapping the text and images wrapped tightly.
In front of text
This option enabled to write in front of the text
Behind the text
As the name implies the text are written behind the image.
Wrap in the table

Some more primitive’s windows

In the justification we actually justify the document text and images according to its requirement.
The justification added the extra spaces around the text by adding space extra. It gives the clean look like this:
Demo demo demo demo Demo demo demo demo Demo demo demo demo
Demo demo demo demo Demo demo demo demo Demo demo demo demo
Demo demo demo demo Demo demo demo demo Demo demo demo demo
Demo demo demo demo Demo demo demo demo Demo demo demo demo

Q.3. what do you understand by restore points? How can you create and use restore points?
Restore points is actually the snapshot of computer configuration which is used for back up all the files if the problem comes.
We can create restore points in two ways first the system automatically create the system restore points and second we can create manually.

Steps required to make restore points.

Now we opened the system restore points now go

Step -01

Step 02

Step 3

We safely create the restore points.

Part B

Q.4. What is an insertion point? How will you correct the mistakes you commit while typing in the text?

Ans :-Insertion point is the point from where we can start over typing it may be
Or it is the blink cursor which we can see in MSWORD which is use to see where we currently are ,..


1:-we can set the behaviour of the insertion point by going on the word press option or either windows xp options.

2:-In ms office 2007 and 10 the blinking rate of insertion point is idle.

..How to set behaviour of insertion point..
On the tool menu go to option>Complex script>

There are two type of order there logical and visual.
-set according to your choice.

The insertion point behaviour is different according to the refresh screen rate.

Q.5. In a multipage document, how will you scroll the document? Describe the technique?

Scrolling is the techniques of navigation in the document in which we can navigate in the document either horizontally or vertically..

1:- scroll up:-
We can scroll up the document using this button which is found on the frame of the windows

2:- Scroll down
This button is use to scroll up the document downward

3:- Scroll left
Similar this button is used to scroll left the button

4:- Scroll up and down vertical: By clicking and holding this button we can move vertically upward and downward.

Similarly we can go horizontally left or right by holding this button.

6:-WE can also used the page up and page down to scroll the document.

7:-Arrow up and down key:- We can also navigate the document by arrows up and down key.

8:- Using mouse middle button we can also move the it the document by holding the middle button and give the direction.

9:-Laptop special button
Some laptop contain special buttons to move in the document.

Q.6. Differentiate between copying and moving?
copying a file
1:-In copying a file the Operating system make duplicate copy of the file and paste it in a new place (location).
2:-Copying a file is intensive process as compare to the moving.
3:-In file copy register are not free instead of new registers required.
4:-System calls are more required.

Moving a file
1:In moving a file the operating system move the content to the new location and delete the current data.
2:-Moving a file is less intensive process
3:-In file move the actual register content to the new location.
4:-Less system calls are required.

C- Assignment1


Qno.1: Write an algorithm to convert the temperature in Fahrenheit into Celsius.
Start the program
Step 1- Take input (temperature in Fahrenheit)
Step 2- (f-32)=a, we store in a;
Step 3- a*0.56=c;
Step 4- print c(output);

Qno.2: Draw the flowchart for simulating a simple calculator performing +,-, /?




yes NO


QNO.3: Differentiate between Pseudo code and Algorithm?

Pseudo code is an imitation of actual computer instructions. It is written in ordinary natural language (e.g., English, French, German, etc).
Where as an Algorithm refers to the logic of a program. It is a step-by-step description of how to arrive at a solution to a given problem.
Pseudo code uses a structure that resembles computer instructions. When a programmer uses pseudo code for program planning, he/she can concentrate solely on developing the logic of the program without worrying about the syntax. Because pseudo code does not have any syntax rules for formulating instructions.
Where as in algorithm is not so. When a programmer uses algorithm for program, he/she does not concentrate only logic of the program but also think about their syntax.

Qno.4: – Company X sells merchandise to wholesale and outlets .Wholesale customers receives a 2% discount on all orders. The company also encourages both wholesale and retail customers to pay the cash on delivery by offering a 2% discount for this method of payment .Another 2% discount is given on orders of 50 or more unit’s .Each column represents a certain type of order? Draw the decision table?
Discount to whole sale =2%
Discount on paying cash on delivery =4%
If so or more unit Order in given =6%

If merchandise is whole sale
merchandise is outlet N N Y Y
payment by cash
unit greater the 50

discount is 2 %
 
discount is 4 %
 
discount is 6 %
 


Q1: – Given the string “WORD POCESSING” Write a program to read the string from the terminal and display the same in the following format?
(b) WORD
(c) W.P

void main()
int i,j=0;
char a[50];
goto label;
if(a[i]==' ')
if(a[i]==' ')

Qno.2: – Write a program to swap the values of two variables with and without using third variable.

void main( )


int a,b;

printf(“\n\n\tEnter the two number”);
printf(“\nThe number you entered is a=%d, b=%d”,a,b);
printf(“\n The number after swapping isa=%d b=%d”,a,b);

Qno.3: Write a program to make a menu driven program to perform addition, subtraction, multiplication and division of two numbers.
void main()
int I,j,n;
int ch;
printf(“\n \n \t Enter1st number”);
scanf(“%d”, &i);
printf(“\n \n \tEnter 2nd number”);
scanf(“%d”, &j);
printf(“\n \n \n \n \t What do you want to do”);
printf(“\n \n \t Enter 1 for Addition”);
printf(“\n \n \t Enter 2 for subtraction”);
printf(“\n \n \t Enter 3 for multiplication”);
printf(“\n \n \t Enter 4 for Division”);
case 1:
printf (“\n \n \n \n \t Your Result is:%d”,res );

case 2:
printf (“\n \n \n \n \t Your Result is:%d”,res );
case 3:
printf (“\n \n \n \n \t Your Result is:%d”,res );
case 4:
printf (“\n \n \n \ n\t Your Result is:%d”,res );
printf(“\n \n \n \n\n Please Enter Valid Number “);

printf(“\n \n \n \n \t Do you want to continue:”);
printf(“\n \n \n \t Enter 1 for Continue”);
printf(“\n \n \n \n \t Enter 2 for Exit”);




Qno.4: Write a program that will read a positive integer and determine and print its binary equivalent.
/* Proram is written by MANISH KR. SINGH */
void showbits(int h)
void main()
int n;
void showbits(int h);
printf(“\nBin eq of %d is “,n);

Qno.5: Write a program to generate the following pattern:

0 1
1 0 1
0 1 0 1
1 0 1 0 1

/* Proram is written by MANISH KR. SINGH */

void main()
int i, j, n, k=1;
Printf(“\n\n\t Enter the number of term”);
for(j=0; j<=i; j++)

Qno. 6: Write a program to generate the following pattern:
2 1 2
3 2 1 2 3
4 3 2 1 2 3 4
5 4 3 2 1 2 3 4 5
/* Proram is written by MANISH KR. SINGH */
void main()
int i, j , n, k;
printf(“\n\n\t Enter the value of n:”);
for(i=2; i<=n; i++)
for(j=1; j<=n+2; j++)
printf(“ “);

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Hii Frndz,

Now I am going to upload all my assignments and Term-Papers, Projects One by One.

Part – A

1. Enumerate the benefits of Micro-kernel design.

Microkernel is a computer kernel that provides the mechanisms needed to implement an operating system, such as low-level address space management, thread management, and inter-process communication. If the hardware provides multiple privilege levels, then the microkernel is the only software executing at the most privileged level (generally referred to as supervisor or kernel mode). Actual operating system services, such as device drivers, protocol stacks, file systems and user interface code are contained in user space.
In the micro kernel design all the modules are divided into the small-small kernel and each module have its own functioning therefore if we want to install new service over this design than we don’t have to interact with other design.

2. Enumerate certain advantages of SMP over uniprocessor architecture. Also, state the design considerations for a multi-processor operating system.

The basic operating systems organizations for multiprocessors are master/slave, separate executive for each processor , and symmetric treatment of all processor.
With a single processor, parallel execution of programs is possible, while in multiprocessor systems parallel execution of programs is possible.
In uniprocessor, the virtue multiprocessor abstraction is supported by time multiplexing the physical processor among the virtual processors. In multiprocessors environment, true multiprocessor is possible by allocating a separate physical processor to each virtual processor.

3. Determine the causes behind certain errors that the designer of an Operating System might face.

Designing an operating system is very different from designing an algorithm:
-The external interface (that is, the requirement) is less precisely defined more complex, and more subject to change.
-The system has much more internal structure, and hence many internal interfaces.
-The measure of success is much less clear.
The designer usually finds himself floundering in a sea of possibilities, unclear about how one choice will limit his freedom to make other choices, or affect the size and performance of the entire system. There probably isn’t a ‘best’ way to build the system, or even any major part of it; much more important is to avoid choosing a terrible way, and to have clear division of responsibilities among the parts.

Part – B

4. a) Compare various CPU scheduling algorithms (particularly: FCFS, SJF, and RR) on the grounds of throughput, response time, overhead, mode (pre-emptive or non-pre-emptive), starvation factor, fairness level to certain processes.

1. FCFS This is the simple CPU scheduling algorithm. The idea is that job which comes first in ready queue is executed first by the CPU.
In this method, ready queue is considered as a FIFO queue, i.e, the job comes in ready queue is added at the tail of the queue and CPU takes the process from the head of queue for execution.

2. SJF This is very good CPU scheduling in this the job ,that has the smallest next CPU burst , is allocated to the CPU for executing first in case where more than one jobs have same length of next CPU burst , the FCFS scheduling is used to break the tie . This scheduling should be known as shortest next CPU burst rather than shortest job first.

3. RR the idea of RR scheduling is just like FCFS but it is preemptive. Time slice , is a small unit of time . the CPU is allocated to every process in the ready queue for one times slice . here , ready queue is treated as a circular queue . the tim slice may be of size 10 to 100 milliseconds. Due to this reason , it is called oftenly time slice scheduling.

b) Also, prepare Gantt charts and determine the average waiting time for the following set of processes using FCFS, SJF (non-pre-emptive) and RR (quantum=4 ms):
Process Name: P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6
Burst Time (in ms): 5 12 7 2 10 4

Gantt chart of FCFS:
P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6
5 12 7 2 10 4
0 5 17 24 26 36 40
Waiting time for process p1= 0
Waiting time for process p2= 5
Waiting time for process p3= 17
Waiting time for process p4= 24
Waiting time for process p5= 26
Waiting time for process p6= 36

Total waiting time= 0+5+17+24+26+36
= 108.
Average waiting time= 108/6
= 18 ms.

Gantt chart for SJF:

0 2 6 11 18 28 12

Waiting time for process p1= 6
Waiting time for process p2= 28
Waiting time for process p3= 11
Waiting time for process p4= 0
Waiting time for process p5= 18
Waiting time for process p6= 2

Total waiting time= 6+28+11+0+18+2
= 65
Average waiting time= 65/6
= 10.83 ms.

Gantt chart for RR:
Given quantum= 4ms.

P4 P5
P2 P3 P5 P2 P5
0 4 8 12 14 18 22 23 27 30 34 38 40

Waiting time for process p1= 22-4+0 = 18
Waiting time for process p2= 34-27+23-8+4 = 26
Waiting time for process p3= 27-12+8 = 23
Waiting time for process p4= 12
Waiting time for process p5= 38-18+14= 34
Waiting time for process p6= 18

Total waiting time= 18+26+23+12+34+18
= 131
Average waiting time = 131/6
= 21.83 ms.

5 a) Suggest a few reasons behind suspension of a process.

The process was placed in the suspended state by itself, or OS, a parent process for the purpose of preventing its execution. This won’t be removed until the agent explicitly orders the removal.

Some of the reasons to behind suspension of a process are:-

1. If one process is ready to execute, but there is no space in the main memory, then it is suspended.

2. When one process in main memory which was blocked & there is another process ready to execute, but waiting in secondary memory, then the process in main memory is suspended.

3. When the parent process suspends, then the sub process is also suspended.

b) A process switch may occur any time that the OS has gained control from the currently running process. Suggest the possible events that may give the control to OS.

Ans:-There are various types of steps occur in the when it takes the control from the operating system. operating system make some call to switch the process which include the process id number and it states, when the function return true than the operating system initialize the next step to take the process and then in take the step.

6 a) Explore the role of Long Term scheduler to control the degree of multiprogramming in the system.

Long term scheduler determines which programs are admitted to the system for execution and when, and which ones should be exited.
Long term scheduling obviously controls the degree of multiprogramming in multitasking systems, following certain policies to decide whether the system can honor a new job submission or, if more than one job is submitted, which of them should be selected. The need for some form of compromise between degree of multiprogramming and throughput seems evident, especially when one considers interactive systems. The higher the number of processes, in fact, the smaller the time each of them may control CPU for, if a fair share of responsiveness is to be given to all processes. Moreover we have already seen that a too high number of processes causes waste of CPU time for system housekeeping chores (trashing in virtual memory systems is a particularly nasty example of this). However, the number of active processes should be high enough to keep the CPU busy servicing the payload (i.e. the user processes) as much as possible, by ensuring that – on average – there always be a sufficient number of processes not waiting for I/O.

b) Suppose that a short term scheduler favors those processes that have used the CPU for least amount of time in the recent past. Justify, why this algorithm will eventually (or indirectly) favor the I/O-bound processes and not yet starve the CPU-bound processes completely.

First of all the CPU bound process (supported by the short term scheduler) support the short process.. And the same activities also indirectly offer by the I/O bound process.
For example if the I/O bound process are short that mean it doesn’t go from long waiting than it shows the short term behavior.
And in the reverse condition if the CPU/bound process take (exceptionally) something different and then it behave like I/O bound process.

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क्या पता कब साथ छूट जायेगा…!!!

Hiii Frndz,

I am sure that your day has gone fine. Na jane kyun Log kuchh aise kaam karte hain jinse kahin na kahin samne wala Hurt hota hai. Aise Hi Main Kabhi-2 Sochta hun yaar kyaa Zindgi hai, kuchh bhi to nahi.
Khali haath aaye the hum khali haath jayenge. Fir ye krodh, lobh, moh, etc kisliye???

mai to bas yahi kahungaa….

“…सांसो का पिंजरा किसी दिन टूट जायेगा
फिर मुसाफिर किसी राह में छूट जायेगा
अभी साथ है तो बात कर लिया करो
क्या पता कब साथ छूट जायेगा
सांसो का पिंजरा किसी दिन टूट जायेगा
फिर मुसाफिर किसी राह में छूट जायेगा
अभी साथ है तो बात कर लिया करो
क्या पता कब साथ छूट जायेगा…”

Ab shayad main kuchh jyada nahi likh paunga…..

Think On It.
Thnk U….

HappY B’Day…

Hii Frndz,
You know today is 8th April and this is the Day when an
Angle Come to this Earth; And Now She is My Best Friend…..
Hmmm, wo thodi Natkhati, Or thodi si Shrarati hai…….

Yeah!! One thing about her is that She lives always Natural……..

I write Some lines about Her:-

“Suraj roshni le kar aaya…
Aur panchhi ne gaana gaaya…
PhooloN ne hans hans kar bola…
SNEHI aapka janam din aaya….”

” पोंछ कर अश्क अपनी आँखों से मुस्कुराओ तो कोई बात बने,
सर झुकाने से कुछ नहीं होगा सर उठाओ तो कोई बात बने…”

Wish and Pray For My Dear Friend that She keeps Smiling Always….
Hahahaha hehehehe hohohoho hahahahaaaaaaaaaaa……..