SAD-Assignment1

Part-I

Q.1 How can you apply the concept of “Application prototype development
strategy” in the information systems. Discuss in detail.

Ans:
A prototype model is built using the prototype geometry to physically represent the new product design. The aesthetics, number of parts, service, industry standards, manufacturing processes, materials and assembly are all represented as accurately as SLA and CNC processes permit. We can provide silicone rubber molds and multiple cast parts with threaded brass inserts when several prototypes are required. Painted steel, machined aluminum and stainless steel prototype parts are also available. Deliverables include a functional prototype model and prototype evaluation.

Q.2 Elaborate the “steps in prototype methods” by taking the example of
some Real life application.

Ans:
Steps in prototype methods:

1. Gather requirements
2. Build prototype
3. Evaluate prototype
4. If accepted, throw away prototype and redesign.
5. If rejected, re gather requirements and repeat from step 2.

Q.3. What is the Use of prototypes in Computer aided system tools?

Ans:
Prototyping tools can be used to develop graphic models of application screens to assist end users to visualize how an application will look after development. Subsequently, system designers can use automated design tools to transform the prototyped functional requirements into detailed design documents. Programmers can then use automated code generators to convert the design documents into code. Automated tools can be used collectively, as mentioned, or individually. For example, prototyping tools could be used to define application requirements that get passed to design technicians who convert the requirements into detailed designs in a traditional manner using flowcharts and narrative documents, without the assistance of automated design software.

Part-II

Q.4. Discuss the Role of various Tools used in the analysis and design of
Information system.

Ans:
Tools are a class of software that automates many of the activities involved in various life cycle phases. For example, when establishing the functional requirements of a proposed application, prototyping tools can be used to develop graphic models of application screens to assist end users to visualize how an application will look after development. Subsequently, system designers can use automated design tools to transform the prototyped functional requirements into detailed design documents. Programmers can then use automated code generators to convert the design documents into code. Automated tools can be used collectively, as mentioned, or individually. For example, prototyping tools could be used to define application requirements that get passed to design technicians who convert the requirements into detailed designs in a traditional manner using flowcharts and narrative documents, without the assistance of automated design software.

Q5. Define and explain the procedures for cost/benefits determination?

Ans:
Cost–benefit analysis is typically used by governments to evaluate the desirability of a given intervention. It is heavily used in today’s government. It is an analysis of the cost effectiveness of different alternatives in order to see whether the benefits outweigh the costs. The aim is to gauge the efficiency of the intervention relative to the status quo. The costs and benefits of the impacts of an intervention are evaluated in terms of the public’s willingness to pay for them (benefits) or willingness to pay to avoid them (costs). Inputs are typically measured in terms of opportunity costs- the value in their best alternative use. The guiding principle is to list all parties affected by an intervention and place a monetary value of the effect it has on their welfare as it would be valued by them.
The process involves monetary value of initial and ongoing expenses vs. expected return. Constructing plausible measures of the costs and benefits of specific actions is often very difficult. In practice, analysts try to estimate costs and benefits either by using survey methods or by drawing inferences from market behavior. For example, a product manager may compare manufacturing and marketing expenses with projected sales for a proposed product and decide to produce it only if he expects the revenues to eventually recoup the costs. Cost–benefit analysis attempts to put all relevant costs and benefits on a common temporal footing. A discount rate is chosen, which is then used to compute all relevant future costs and benefits in present-value terms. Most commonly, the discount rate used for present-value calculations is an interest rate taken from financial markets. This can be very controversial; for example, a high discount rate implies a very low value on the welfare of future generations, which may have a huge impact on the desirability of interventions to help the environment. Empirical studies suggest that in reality, people’s discount rates do decline over time. Because cost–benefit analysis aims to measure the public’s true willingness to pay, this feature is typically built into studies.
During cost–benefit analysis, monetary values may also be assigned to less tangible effects such as the various risks that could contribute to partial or total project failure, such as loss of reputation, market, or long-term enterprise strategy alignments. This is especially true when governments use the technique, for instance to decide whether to introduce business regulation build a new road, or offer a new drug through the state healthcare system. In this case, a value must be put on human life or the environment, often causing great controversy. For example, the cost–benefit principle says that we should install a guardrail on a dangerous stretch of mountain road if the dollar cost of doing so is less than the implicit dollar value of the injuries, deaths, and property damage thus prevented.
Cost–benefit calculations typically involve using time value of money formulas. This is usually done by converting the future expected streams of costs and benefits with a present value amount.

Q6 .What is the system requirement/how are requirement determined?

Ans:
Software Requirements deal with defining software resource requirements and pre-requisites that need to be installed on a computer to provide optimal functioning of an application. These requirements or pre-requisites are generally not included in the software installation package and need to be installed separately before the software is installed.
System requirements are often suggested by software vendor for optimal performance of software. Although not a necessity, this set of requirements is often sought after by power users who expect to gain a better experience of software usability. Recommended System Requirements do not promise best possible performance of software and are treated as more of a guideline than a rule. Almost always a better system is available, or will be in future, to provide better performance. Also, exceeding by far these requirements does not guarantee to the user that everything will run with absolute smoothness and look its best. More often than not, games are a bit disappointing in this respect, presenting issues that may or may not be corrected with future modifications.

Q7. What forms of decision table are used in information systems?

Ans:
Decision table can be used if the combination of conditions is given. In decision table conditions are known as causes and serial numbers of conditions are known as business rule.
Example
The limited-entry decision table is the simplest to describe. The condition alternatives are simple Boolean values, and the action entries are check-marks, representing which of the actions in a given column are to be performed.
A technical support company writes a decision table to diagnose printer problems based upon symptoms described to them over the phone from their clients.

Printer troubleshooter
Rules
Conditions Printer does not print Y Y Y Y N N N N
A red light is flashing Y Y N N Y Y N N
Printer is unrecognized Y N Y N Y N Y N
Actions Check the power cable X
Check the printer-computer cable X X
Ensure printer software is installed X X X X
Check/replace ink X X X X
Check for paper jam X X
Of course, this is just a simple example (and it does not necessarily correspond to the reality of printer troubleshooting), but even so, it demonstrates how decision tables can scale to several conditions with many possibilities.

*********************** THE END ***************************

Advertisements
  1. No trackbacks yet.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: